According to Buddhist epistemology (à la Dignaga & Dharmakirti), what is otherwise considered by realist Hindu philosophers as the nature of a universal, as a reality exemplified by the particulars which instantiate it, are nothing more than combinations of percepts (non-conceptual mental datum) which are made to take on the role of fictional proxies that function to represent particular entities by means of a double-negation operation (“apoha”), whereby all particulars which are un-like the particular concerned are excluded from recognition. This allows one to interact with reality without a commitment to the existence or non-existence of universals, both of which end up being self-undermining approaches to the problem of the universal.
Positing the existence of universals entails that all particulars which instantiate it are identical in their being, but this obscures the diversity of the world, and since universals function by uniting differences, the obscuration of diversity results in the inability to pose universals in the first place. Positing the non-existence of universals entails that no particular is instantiated by a universal and hence everything is intrinsically different from everything else, but this obscures the interconnectedness of the world, and since particulars are sorted out by means of categories that connect particulars to each other, the obscuration of interconnectedness results in the inability to meaningfully distinguish between particulars in the first place.
So without a commitment to the true existence of universals (like the theistic Hindu realists) or their true non-existence (like the atheistic Charvaka skeptics), the engaged Buddhist can meaningfully operate in the world in order to fulfill her motivating values without undermining either the diversity or the interconnectedness of things.
However, this does not necessarily mean that the engaged Buddhist is indifferent to the problem of universals. In fact, Buddhist ontology (à la Nagarjuna & Candrakirti) provides the resources for understanding the nature of a concrete universal, which is a real universal which not only does not undermine the diversity or interconnectedness of the particulars which it instantiates, but is the very basis of all diversity and interconnectedness.
This concrete universal is called “sunyata” or emptiness, which refers neither to a positively existing entity or property but is rather a qualified negation of “svabhava” or intrinsic self-identity. It is a qualified negation because it is not a negation by means of a replacement (we are not negating something in favor of positing something else), but rather a negation that indicates the mere absence of something. To say that things are absent of an instrinically self-identical nature is to merely say that one’s being is such only by reference to and in dependence upon every other. This allows forms of “soft” identity and “soft” difference to function simultaneously, whereby things work together to mutually establish each other’s identities, and their distinctive roles in this process establish their differences. Since “hard” identity or “hard” difference undermine themselves, they undermine the ability to explain how things come to be, work, and come to an end at all, and so only by means of the lack of intrinsic self-identity can we make sense of how things come to be, work, and come to an end.
Since everything lacks, or is absent of, intrinsic self-identity, nothing at all inheres this way, which entails that emptiness is a (or rather, is the) true universal, because it instantiates all particulars equally without undermining their identities and or their differences. And it is concrete because it is principally a percept, and is not abstract because the concept only functions to direct one’s attention towards an unmediated perception of it. Since it is not just a universal, but the universal, it is ever-present everywhere at all times without remainder, and hence, available to ascertain without limit. But it is difficult to ascertain because the history of natural selection (which prioritizes the development of self-reproductive capacity over reality-tracking awareness) and class society (which poses our social interests against our human interests) has conditioned us with the habit of operating in the world as if things possessed intrinsically self-identical natures. It is beneficial for natural selection to select for this since intrinsic self-identity gives an artificial precedence to the value of one’s own being at the expense of others’ being, which instills the value of the process of self-reproduction by which natural selection operates. Likewise, it is beneficial for class society to condition people this way because it helps obscure the reality of the material conditions that produce those immiserating social relations, and hence, helps continuously reproduce said class society. It is as if we are ingrained and habitually conditioned to experience reality as the opposite of how it actually is!
But all hope is not lost. Buddhist phenomenology (à la Asanga & Vasubhandhu) gives us the resources to learn how to change the nature of our unconscious cognitive processing in order to realize that the fictitious proxies we use to interact with the world are only useful illusions, that they have no ultimate reality of their own because they are linguistically mediated constructions that are historically and culturally contingent, and that the actual reality of things are not what these proxies represent them as. Through a laborious process of transforming our mind-body complex, we are able to follow a path or trajectory that progressively realizes the negation of inherent existence—and hence realizing the concrete universal—in lived experience. With the total generalization of this sort of experience, where not a single moment goes by that one is not cognizing ultimate emptiness, one realizes that one’s own being is a real instantiation of the concrete universal. Following this, an immense reservoir of potential power becomes unlocked and freely available, allowing one to maximize the actualized fulfillment of any and every need.
Now the great difficulty is thinking how all of this can be translated into politics….Revolution is basically the concrete instantiation of the realization that how things appear to be are not how they really are, and that what presents itself as the only real reality is often obscuring the fact that there is more to reality than what presently exists. In a way then, emancipatory political revolution that overturns the ruling order and experiential spiritual insight into ultimate emptiness are two distinct ways of embodying the same concrete universal in living praxis.